Cooking Terms and Tips


  The following list of Cooking Terms and Tips is taken from "Twenty Lessons in Domestic Science - A condensed Home Study Course -  Marketing: Food Principals, Functions of Food, Methods of Cooking, Glossary of Usual Culinary Terms, Pronunciations and Definitions. Etc." by Marian Cole Fisher (Compiled and printed for the Calumet Baking Powder Company) 1916


Baking: Cooking by hot air confined in an oven.

Slow Oven: Temperature is about 250 to 300 degrees Fahr.

Moderate Oven: Temperature is about 350 to 400 degrees Fahr.

Hot Oven: Temperature is 400 to 450 degrees Fahr.

Very Hot Oven: Temperature is 450 to 550 degrees Fahr.

Broiling: Is applying intense heat by means of open fire to sear the surfaces of fish or meat, then reducing heat until food is cooked. Temperature is 375 to 400 degrees Fahr.

Boiling: Cooking food in water at 212 degrees Fahr.

Liquids, heavier than plain water, reach a heat greater than 212 degrees Fahr., which is greatest heat of boiling water. Water heavily salted reaches more than 212 degrees.
Milk boils at 214 degrees Fahr.
Milk scalds at 196 degrees Fahr., when in double boiler.
Milk is pasteurized at 165 Fahr., holding at that temperature twenty minutes.
Milk is sterilized at 212 degrees Fahr., holding that temperature half an hour.

Simmering: Cooking food in water below boiling point or about 185 degrees Fahr.

Braising: Cooking food in slow oven with moisture surrounding food in the pan.

Stewing: Cooking at 186 degrees Fahr.

Poaching: Cooking at 1160-180 degrees Fahr.

Frying: Cooking in deep fats or oils:

First. Fat should be hot enough to prevent article absorbing it.
Second. Fat should entirely submerge the article.
Third. Article should not be wet or very cold.
Fourth. Some food requires special protection of egg and crumbs to prevent breaking apart or absorbing fat.
Fifth. All foods, after frying, should be drained on unglazed paper to eliminate superfluous fat.

Vegetable Oils are better for frying than lard or other animal fats, as they do not burn at as low a temperature and are not as readily absorbed by the food.

Batters and Doughs are the usual forms in which flour is used.

Thin Batter: One measure of liquid plus one and one-half measure of flour.
Very Thin Batter: One measure of liquid to one measure of flour.
Drop Dough: One measure of liquid to two measures of flour.
Stiff Dough: One measure of liquid to three measures of flour.

Leavening: Leavening other than yeast or baking powder is produced when SODA is added to neutralize the acid of SOUR MILK or MOLASSES. The gas thus formed is not as easily controlled, nor is it sufficient for the amount of flour which would be required to complete a mixture. Caution must be observed, therefore, in the combination of soda with such acids as are found in sour milk and molasses, not to use too much soda. The rule is to use just enough soda to neutralize the acid, then use one-half as much baking powder (CALUMET) as the same recipe would demand when made with sweet milk. The sweeter molasses and syrups do not require nearly as much soda as the black molasses. The sweeter or fresh buttermilk and the just turned milk do not require nearly as much soda as the longer standing buttermilk and the completely soured milk.

Rule for Use of Soda: One level teaspoon soda to two cups completely soured milk.
One-half level teaspoon soda to two cups just turned milk.
One level teaspoon soda to one cup dark molasses.

Rule for Use of Baking Powder: One level teaspoon of baking powder to each level cup of pastry flour in bread or cake making.
One and one-half level teaspoons of baking powder to each level cup of bread flour.

The teaspoon rounded or struck off on the edge of the can equals two level teaspoons and is more easily measured off by busy cooks than by leveling and then dividing.

To level a teaspoon, draw a knife over edges.

With Calumet, a DOUBLE ACTING BAKING POWDER, you do not have to use extra care and precaution––you will get the best results by baking in a moderate oven, but you may bake at temperatures varying from this with safety. You may move the food in the oven or open the door for inspection without fear of your baking falling––you may mix a pan of biscuits at night, put them in the refrigerator and they are ready for the oven in the morning.

DOUBLE ACTING BAKING POWDER means a baking powder containing two leavening units; one unit begins to work when the dough is mixed; the other unit waits for the heat of the oven; then both units work together––your guarantee against failure––against waste.